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Louis Pasteur, Conqueror of Disease
A. Answer the following questions briefly.
1. “Louis Pasteur was not a soldier, but he was a fighter.” What does the statement mean?
= even though Louis Pasteur didn’t join the military and become a warrior, he was a contender since he battled different sorts of sicknesses through his revelations about microbes.
2. What are bacteria?
=Microbes, additionally called germs, are infinitesimal creatures not obvious with the unaided eye. Microbes are all over, both inside and outside of your body. Microscopic organisms can live in an assortment of conditions, from heated water to ice. A few microorganisms are beneficial for you, while others can make you wiped out.
3. As a scientist, how was Louis Pasteur unique?
=Louis Pasteur made some energizing disclosures about germs as well as ready to utilize his revelations in exceptionally viable manners. He could help numerous individuals running different ventures in France.
4. How did Pasteur try to solve difficult problems?
=Pasteur used to sit for hours, quite silent and motionless, thinking hard about the difficult problems and trying to find out the solutions.
a) How would Pasteur react whenever he solved a problem?
=At the point when Pasteur thought about an answer, his sort, a drained looking face would light up with delight and fervor, and he would surge round to advise his revelation to his better half and to other people who were causing him.
b) What does this reveal about him as a person?
=This shows that Pasteur was earnest about taking care of issues and was additionally basic and kid-like in imparting his disclosures to other people.
6. What discoveries did Pasteur make about yeast?
=Yeast is accustomed to making the beer foam. Pasteur found that yeast was alive, comprised of small living cells. At the point when these cells were solid, the yeast acted well, however on the off chance that they were sick, the yeast and the brew turned out badly.
7.What does “spontaneous generation” mean?
=Some scientists believed in ‘spontaneous generation’, i.e., they believed that germs had no parents but just occurred by themselves.
8. Did Pasteur believe in a spontaneous generation? If not, what did he believe in?
=Yes, Pasteur and a few researchers like him accepted that germs were conveyed noticeable all around and might taint different things that interacted with them.
9.In the statement, “Pasteur proved that he was right…” (para 9),
what did he prove?
=In the statement, Pasteur proved that germs were carried in the air and might infect other things that came in contact with them.
10. In the second soup experiment (para 10) which soup was the worst, which was the best and which one was better?
=In the second soup experiment, the jugs opened in the inn room were loaded with soup which had gone rotten because of the presence of numerous germs; the containers opened in the field were rotten, yet not exactly so awful; those opened on the mountain had no germs in them by any means. The last group was the best, the first was most noticeably awful, and the second one better than the first.
11.What is “Pasteurisation”?
=Pasteurisation is the partial sterilization of a product, such as milk or wine, to make it safe for consumption and improve its keeping quality.
12. The writer says,” It would be impossible to imagine Pasteur experimenting with explosives or poisonous gas” (para 13). What quality of Pasteur is highlighted here?
=Pasteur’s affection for humanity and his caring nature are featured in the sentence. He had no affection for plain accomplishment, cash, or notoriety.
13. On what study did Pasteur spend all his time and energy for three years?
=For a very long time, Pasteur invested all his time and energy in finding the reason for an infection that had demolished the silkworm business.
14. How is vaccination different from inoculation?
=Introducing live organisms into the body to generate immunity is vaccination (for viral diseases like smallpox, rubella, chicken-pox, measles, tuberculosis) whereas introduction of weak or dead organisms into the body to produce immunity is called inoculation (for bacterial diseases like typhoid, diphtheria, and cholera).
15. What made Pasteur believe that a cow could not have anthrax twice?
=When Pasteur was trying to discover a cure for the terrible disease called ‘Anthrax’, he found out, first of all, that a cow could not have Anthrax twice.
16. What made many scientists angry? ( para 16)
=Pasteur started to keep thinking about whether it would not be conceivable to make a bovine and even a man simply somewhat sick with Bacillus anthracis so they probably won’t get it once more. He felt that this should be possible by giving the dairy animals or sheep exceptionally powerless old germs to make them protected or invulnerable for what’s to come. This thought of giving creatures germs drove numerous researchers mad.
17. What is rabies?
=A deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals.
Rabies is usually transmitted through an animal bite, for example, from stray dogs.
18. How was Pasteur a better scientist than Jenner?
= Even though Dr. Jenner had just found how to immunize against smallpox, he didn’t generally comprehend microbes. Pasteur after giving his life to this examination had the option to demonstrate the estimation of vaccination and to discover methods of shifting it for various illnesses.
19. How was the very low death rate among the troops during the First World War a great tribute to Pasteur’s work?
=During the First World War 1 (1914-1918), the soldiers traveling to another country were » vaccinated against such infections as typhoid and enteric fever, and the low passing rate from this sickness among v the soldiers, even in undesirable spots, was an extraordinary accolade for Pasteur’s work.
20. At the opening ceremony of Pasteur Institute in Paris, Pasteur talked about two opposing laws.
a) Which are the two laws?
=One law was a law of blood and death, opening out each day new methods of destruction, forcing nations to be always ready for the battle.
The second law was a law of peace, work, and health, whose only aim is to deliver a man from the disasters which surrounded him.
The first one seeks violent conquests, the other relief of mankind.
b) Which one did he favour?
=Pasteur supported the second law I of harmony, work, and wellbeing since he was certain that science in complying with the law of humankind, will consistently work to broaden the wildernesses of life.
21. What was his message to young students on the occasion of his 70th birthday celebration?
=“The future,” he said, “will belong to those who shall have done the most for suffering humanity.” To the young students he addressed a special word, ‘First ask yourselves, “What have I done for my education?” Then as you advance in life, “What have I done for my country?” ‘so that someday that supreme happiness may come to you, the consciousness of having contributed in some measure to the progress and welfare of humanity.’
22. What is the supreme happiness he talks about?
=Pasteur says supreme happiness is the result of the consciousness of having contributed in some measure to the progress and welfare of humanity.
23. Here are Louis Pasteur’s thoughts at various points in the lesson. Read the paragraphs mentioned against each and explain how he came to each conclusion.
a. I am certain that yeast is alive, made up of tiny living cells (para 7)
=While helping the brewer, Pasteur learned numerous things about yeast. He saw that yeast was alive, comprised of little living cells. At the point when these cells were solid, the yeast acted well, yet on the off chance that they were sick, the yeast and the brew turned out badly.
b. Germs are carried in the air and may _________________________ infect other things that came in contact________________________ with them (paras 8, 9) ___________________________
=As Overseer of Logical Examinations at a well-known school in Paris, Pasteur was contemplating rot and yeast and germs. He accepted that germs were conveyed noticeable all around and tainted different things that interacted with them. He made this statement by pulling out the neck of soup bottles so that there was a major twist in the center. The soup in the container never turned sour because there were no parent germs in the soup and no germs could arrive at it on account of the twist in the long cylinder. It was just when a little soup was part down the cylinder that germs entered it with dust and tainted it.
c. Pure air is different from stale air (para 10)_________________________
=Pasteur filled a few containers with soup. He brought some into a little inn room where the air was scarcely ever changed, severed their necks so the air could enter openly, and following a couple of moments fixed them up again. He at that point took’ a few containers into a field close by and did likewise with them. At long last, he opened some on the highest point of a high mountain and again fixed them up. At the point when they were inspected, the containers opened in the lodging room were loaded with soup which had gone rotten; the jugs opened in the field were rotten, be that as it may, not exactly so awful; those opened on the mountain had no germs in them by any means.
d. Pasteurization makes the germs harmless (para 12)________________
=Pasteur showed that by heating the wine or milk or whatever it might be to a temperature of 50 or 60 degrees centigrade, the germs turn harmless.
Read the following extracts carefully. Discuss in pairs and then write the answers to the questions given below them.
1. “Do germs form from other germs, or do they just come off
a)What did people like Pasteur believe about germs?
=People like Pasteur accepted that germs were conveyed noticeable all around and might taint different things that interacted with them.
b)Which of the two was called “spontaneous generation”?
= Scientists other than Pasteur believed in ‘spontaneous generation’, i.e., they believed that germs had no parents but just occurred by themselves.
c)How did Pasteur prove that he was right?
=Pasteur demonstrated that he was directed by leading a trial in which the neck of a container with the soup was stretched out to stop germs from entering. Just when the soup has filled this curve, it interacted with germs from dust and got tainted.
2.“If you can cure animals, you can cure my son.”
a)What had Pasteur cured the animals off?
=Pasteur had cured the animals of the terrible disease of Anthrax.
b) What was wrong with the “son” referred to?
=The “son” here referred to as the boy who had a lot of bites from a mad dog and was sure to die.
c) Did Pasteur cure the boy? How?
=Yes, Pasteur cured the boy.
Pasteur vaccinated the boy with some feeble rabies germs and the boy came round.
Discuss in pairs/groups of four each, the answers to the following questions. Individually, note down the important points for each question and then develop the points into one – paragraph answers:-
1. What was troubling the French wine-growers? How did Pasteur solve their problem? What is the name of the process which was the solution to the wine-growers?
=a germ disturbed some French wine producers that had turned their wine acrid. Pasteur demonstrated that warming the wine to a temperature of 50 or 60 degrees centigrade, the germs turn innocuous. This cycle now people know as ‘Pasteurization’.
2. How did Pasteur develop the idea of immunity?
=Pasteur was attempting to find a solution for the horrendous sickness called Bacillus anthracis, which men now and again get from tainted shaving brushes, and which was assaulting cows and sheep in France and slaughtering them off rapidly. He discovered above all else that a cow couldn’t have Bacillus anthracis twice. At that point, he started to puzzle over whether it would not be conceivable to make dairy animals and even a man simply somewhat sick with Bacillus anthracis so they probably won’t get it once more. Maybe this should be possible by giving the dairy animals or sheep feeble old germs to make them protected or ‘immune’ for the future.
3. What human qualities of Pasteur do you admire?
=Louis Pasteur was what we should call an ‘overall’ researcher. All the exploration which he did in his research centres was with the intention to help his kindred people. It is difficult to envision Pasteur exploring different avenues regarding explosives or toxic substance gas. Pasteur was truly keen on taking care of the issues of others. He would consider for quite a while, and when at long last he found an answer, he would hurry to pass on his plan to the others. Pasteur was kid-like and straightforward essentially. When there was a tempest of commendation in the large clinical Congress in London, he checked out reasoning that the cheers should be for some regal individual and not himself by any means.
4. “All the research which he did in his laboratories was meant to help his fellow human beings.” Elucidate.
=Pasteur made some energizing revelations about germs as well as ready to utilize his disclosures in pragmatic manners. He buckled down in his research center with test cylinders and a wide range of investigations, however practically all the time he was attempting to help individuals who were experiencing in some exceptional manner the infection. Among the individuals whom Pasteur had the option to help were brewers, raisers of silk works, and cowkeepers, every one of whom was attempting to carry on significant enterprises in France. He found ‘vaccination’ which gave resistance to individuals and creatures against Bacillus anthracis and the feared sickness, rabies.
5. What would have been the fate of humankind if Louis Pasteur had not discovered the vaccine against rabies?
=Rabies is a hazardous sickness of canines and different vertebrates, brought about by an infection that can be communicated through the salivation to people, causing frenzy and seizures. Numerous individuals used to bite the dust of rabies. Numerous others used to experience the ill effects of nibbles brought about by a distraught canine. Pasteur immunized a contaminated kid with some powerless rabies germs and the kid recuperated. This turned the destiny of rabies-contaminated individuals.
Fill in the blanks with the opposites of the words underlined.
1. The machines were busy, but they are _________ now because there is no electricity.
2. Some of the students were interested in the lesson while the rest were _______ in it.
3. We have appointed a new manager because the previous one
4. To maintain one’s health one should eat fresh food not
5. Someone dropped a burning cigarette on the carpet and that was the cause of the fire. The ____________ was that the whole the building was burned down.
6. The wounded tiger attacked the hunter and he was unable to
7. Our army has checked the enemy’s advance, and they have no
other option but to _____________
8. There is a progressive improvement in the school’s results since
2006, thank God it is not ______________.