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Textbook Answers of What is Moral Action?
A. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. In paragraph one, Gandhiji says that our conventional behavior is :
a.immoral b. moral c. neither moral nor immoral d. necessary e. unnecessary
=(c) neither moral nor immoral.
2.What is non-moral action?
=Activity which doesn’t include ethical quality yet is conceived of winning shows.
3.What is the difference between a mechanical act and an intentional act?
= If the activity is done precisely and doesn’t spring from our own will, there is no ethical substance in the demonstration. It is a mechanical act. Such activity would be good on the off chance that we think it legitimate to act like a machine and do as such since in doing as such, we utilize our separation.
4. Give an example each for conventional behaviour and amoral
=Welcome everybody toward the beginning of the day is ordinary conduct. It turns into an ethical demonstration when it is finished to light up the lives of those individuals.
5.The first paragraph discusses what is not a moral action. The second paragraph gives one important criterion to decide what constitutes a moral action. What is that criterion?
=A moral act should spring from our own will, from the utilization of our separation. This is the standard.
6.When can the messenger’s act become a moral action?
=At the point when the messenger, rather than precisely conveying the request, do it since he should do as such, it turns into an ethical activity.
7.When, according to Gandhi, can we regard ourselves to have stepped on to the moral road?
=According to Gandhi, when we all care only for what our conscience says, then alone can we be regarded to have stepped onto the moral road.
8.What is the belief that Gandhi talks of in paragraph 2?
=Gandhiji says that we can’t be really good if we don’t accept and encounter the conviction that God inside us, the Divine force of all, is the consistently present observer to every one of our demonstrations.
9.All good actions need not be moral acts. When does good action become a moral act? (paragraph 3). Give an example.
=Feeding poor people is an example of a good action. It is a moral act when the person, out of pity for the poor, feeds them.
10. In the example of feeding the poor, whose action is moral?
=Taking care of destitute individuals is an illustration of decent activity. It is an ethical demonstration when the individual, out of pity for poor people, takes care of them.
11. The result of our action determines whether our action is moral or non-moral (say whether the statement is True or False)
12. Why does Gandhi say that Alexander’s conquests cannot be called moral actions?
=Alexander’s conquests cannot be called moral actions because the intention behind all of them was only power and renown.
13. In each paragraph Gandhiji adds one criterion to consider an action moral. What criterion is added in paragraph 4?
=Gandhiji says that an action is moral if it is done voluntarily and without compulsion or fear.
14. When does simple living become moral?
=Basic living becomes moral when the individual, albeit rich, thinks about all the need and hopelessness on the planet about him and feels that he should live a plain, basic life and not one of straightforwardness and extravagance.
15. When does an employer’s action of paying higher salaries to his employees remain non-moral?
=When the employer sympathizes with his employees or pays them higher wages lest they leave him, his action remains non-moral.
16. When Gandhiji quotes Shakespeare (in paragraph 5), what argument does he want to strengthen?
=At the point when he cites Shakespeare, Gandhiji needs to underline the point that any activity, even one of indicating love, finished with a benefits rationale, stops to be an ethical activity. Genuineness should be turned to, not because it passes on the best strategy of all, but since it is the correct arrangement.
17. Gandhiji mentions the name of Henry Clay as an example of moral/non-moral action. (Choose the right answer)
=Non- moral action.
18. What qualities of Daniel Webster does Gandhiji mention?
=David Webster had great intellect and a wonderful sense of the heroic and the sublime.
19. What is the single mean act of Webster mentioned in paragraph 6?
=Single mean act of Webster is that He once sold his intellectual’ integrity for a price.
20. Why is it difficult to judge the morality of a man’s action?
=It is difficult to judge the morality of a man’s action because we cannot penetrate the depths of his mind.
21. What arguments does Gandhiji give to justify that a moral act should be free from fear and compulsion?
=He says that there is no profound quality in an individual’s demonstration on the off chance that he rises right on time out of the dread that, if he is late for his office, he may lose. his circumstance. Essentially, there is no profound quality in his carrying on with a basic and honest life if he has not the way to live something else.
22. To sum up, an action becomes moral when an action: (Complete the following)
a. springs from one’s will (paragraph 2)
(from paragraph 3)
(from paragraph 4)
(from paragraph 5)
e. is not done with expectations of benefit in life after death
=is not done with expectations of benefit in life after death.
Read the following extracts carefully. Discuss in pairs and then write the answers to the questions given below them.
1.The great Saint Theresa wished to have a torch in her right hand and a vessel of water in her left so that with the one she might burn the glories of heaven and with the other extinguish the fires of hell, and men might learn to serve God from love alone without fear of hell and without the temptation of heavenly bliss.
a. Why did Saint Theresa hold a torch in her right hand?
=Saint Theresa holds a torch in her right hand as she desired to burn the glories of heaven with the torch.
b. What does “a vessel of water” signify?
=“a vessel of water” signifies that She wanted to douse the flames of damnation with the vessel of water.
c. What was her message to humanity?
=She needed individuals to figure out how to serve God from affection along unafraid of hellfire and without the enticement of magnificent euphoria.
2. Wherever he went (in the course of his conquests), he took the
Greek language and Greek culture, arts and manners, and today we enjoy the benefits of Greek civilization……. It was all right that he was termed “great”, but moral he cannot be called
a. Who does ‘he’ refer to?
=‘he’ refers to the Greek Emperor, Alexander, the Great.
b.What is his contribution to mankind?
=He took the Greek language and Greek culture, expressions, and habits to various pieces of the world, accordingly empowering every one of them to appreciate the advantages of Greek human advancement.
c.Why doesn’t Gandhi consider him moral?
= Although he went to various pieces of the world, the goal behind Alexander’s activity was just success and eminence.
Discuss in pairs/groups of four each the answers to the following questions. Individually, note down the important points for each question and then develop the points into one-paragraph answers.
1. Write on Mahatma Gandhi’s comments on action prompted by the motive of happiness in another world.
=Gandhiji says that an activity accomplished for contemplations of solace and individual bliss in a different universe is non-moral. That activity is good which is done uniquely for doing great. St. Francis Xavier supplicated enthusiastically that his psyche may consistently stay unadulterated. As far as he might be concerned, the dedication of God was not for getting a charge out of a higher seat in the afterlife. He supplicated because it was man’s obligation to ask.
St. Theresa wished to have a light in her correct hand and a vessel may consume the wonders of paradise and with the other quench the flames of heck and men may figure out how to serve God from adoration along unafraid of hellfire and without the enticement of great ecstasy. Remarking upon incredible men who have relinquished their qualities for their aspirations, Gandhiji says that with one mean act, they have cleared out the entirety of their great deeds. This fair shows that it is so hard to pass judgment on the ethical quality of man’s activity since we can’t enter the profundities of his brain.
2. Why does Gandhi say that moral action should be done without compulsion?
=Gandhiji says that a moral act should be liberated from dread and impulse. He says that there is no ethical quality at all in an individual’s demonstration if he rises right on time out of the dread that, if he is late to his office, he may lose his circumstance. Also, there is no ethical quality in his carrying on with a basic and straightforward life on the off chance that he has not the way to live Something else.
Plain, basic living would be good if, however affluent, the individual thinks about all the need and hopelessness on the planet about him – and feels that he should live a plain, basic life and not one of east and extravagance.
In like manner, it is just narrow-minded and hot good, of a business to identify with his workers or pay them higher wages in case they leave him. It would be good if the business wished well of them and treated them mercifully acknowledging how he owed his flourishing to them.
Give one-word substitutes for the following
1.The absence of government –
2.A story that gives a moral –
3.One who takes delight in the suffering of others –
4.Making atonement for one’s sins –
5.A decision which cannot be changed –